By: Dr. Robert Bard (Cancer Imaging Historian)
Edited by: Prof. Rodolfo Campani
THE BIRTH OF MEDICAL RADIOLOGY
Since the German discovery of the X-Ray in 1890, scientists worldwide found the drive to mobilize diagnostic science into a non-invasive direction. Scanning technology carried the potential to save lives by enabling images of physiological issues underneath the skin non-invasively- or without any cutting. But it wasn't until 1977 that the results of radiologicical imaging advanced to the capacity of cancer detection as the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was developed by Armenian-born Dr. Raymond Damadian who performed the first full body scan to diagnose cancer and refining the focus of modern radiology.
The Bracco Imaging Group (headquartered in Milan, Italy) established the first multinational healthcare group in 1927, and heavily supported many contributions to clinical diagnostic science including the launch of the advancement of CONTRAST agents for all imaging solutions. It is this material injected in the bloodstream that allowed a significant improvement in identifying tumor cells.
ITALIAN HISTORY OF TRACKING BLOOD FLOW
Leonardo Da Vinci detailed over 500 years ago about the way the blood flowed in and out of the heart and showed how the valves worked. It wasn't until 1960 that the medical community caught up to Da Vinci and confirmed all this time that he was remarkably correct! A jump to the 1990's became a pivotal period as European imaging has standardized the non-invasive ultrasound technology to be a major screening protocol for cancer investigation.
One of the leading pioneers in this study was Professor Rodolfo Campani who started the first world study of ultrasound contrast agents in humans in Italy in 1990. The Scientific Journal of the Italian Society of Radiology "La Radiologia Medica" (reported in May 1993) presented the results of the 5 Italian experimentation centers under his coordination at the Institute of Radiology in the University of Pavia. He was credited for developing the first (non-radiation based) ultrasound contrast agent which are used to show BLOOD FLOW in tumors, elevating the power of the ultrasound to out-perform MRI's, X-rays and CT Scans. Implementation of this contrast was a generational leap in advantages because it made the tumor vascularity much more easily visible using the injectable and safe ultrasound contrast agent. Unlike the MRI contrasts (which contained heavy metals) the ultrasound contrast was comprised of air bubbles and microalbumin. In a 1994 journal, this contrast was first used in liver cancers where vascularity is highlighted inside the liver.
With this same time span, CARLO MARTINOLI, MD (Genoa) arose as another contributor to the widespread use of ultrasound technology by emphasizing the effects of ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems. He helped shape modern medical education to recognize and include the studies of ultrasound and musculoskeletal radiology and coauthored vital textbooks on the subject which are still in use today in over 22 countries.
Modern studies confirm that metastasis (the spread of cancer to other areas of the body) and cell migration is mobilized by blood flow, and it is here that diagnostic protocols examine other clues as to the condition of the existing tumors. Digital ultrasound imaging with blood flow technology, the doppler blood flow, and the contrast enhanced blood flow was pioneered and developed by Rodolfo Campani and Luigi Solbiati (from Busto Arsizio/Varese) where they introduced worldwide the performance of the Doppler Ultrasound as a viable and more accurate technology for diagnosing tumors and assessing tumor response in many different areas.
(End of part 1)
About the Author:
Robert L. Bard, MD, PC, DABR, FASLMS is internationally known and recognized as a leader in the field of 21st Century 3-D ULTRASONOGRAPHIC VOLUMETRIC DOPPLER IMAGING. Dr. Bard specializes in advanced 3-D sonography to detect cancers in numerous organs including the breast, prostate, skin, thyroid, melanoma and other areas. Dr. Bard’s images are used to accurately guide biopsies, target therapy and provide focused follow-up after treatment. As of Jan '18, Dr. Robert Bard spearheaded a partnership with a host of cancer educators, medical practitioners and non-profit foundations (allied under AwarenessforaCure.org) to form a public resource program to aid in the advancement of the public's understanding about self-preservation from cancer and other chronic diseases. EARLY DETECTION & PREVENTION is a global health movement that promotes a higher regard for "clean living" - from toxins and a toxic lifestyle. Our program consists of four main efforts: EDUCATION, COMMUNITY CONNECTION, CURRENT NEWS & CLINICAL RESOURCES. EARLY DETECTION & PREVENTION brings the empowerment of wellness through group seminars, videos and the distribution of current articles & newsletters published/shared to all the major cancer charities and their members. For more information or to subscribe to our EARLY CANCER DETECTION & PREVENTION PROGRAM newsletter, contact Bard Cancer Diagnostics today at: 212.355.7017 (www.BardCancerDiagnostics.com)- or email us at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Special thanks to the Columbia Association (FDNY) for their interest in exploring the history of cancer treatment and Italian solutionists. 5/14/2019 New Hyde Park, NY -- Chapter VP John Signorile introduces NYCRA's cancer advocates to present topics of awareness and available resources for checkups. In support of the Italian Heritage that the Columbia Association supports throughout its history, Dr. Bard produced this article as a gift to the organization and community it represents - uncovering the highly notable Italian contributors to cancer research. This archive study continues to expand in future volumes and issues.
Disclaimer & Copyright Notice: The materials provided on this website are copyrighted and the intellectual property of the publishers/producers (The NY Cancer Resource Alliance/IntermediaWorx inc. and Bard Diagnostic Research & Educational Programs). It is provided publicly strictly for informational purposes within non-commercial use and not for purposes of resale, distribution, public display or performance. Unless otherwise indicated on this web based page, sharing, re-posting, re-publishing of this work is strictly prohibited without due permission from the publishers. Also, certain content may be licensed from third-parties. The licenses for some of this Content may contain additional terms. When such Content licenses contain additional terms, we will make these terms available to you on those pages (which his incorporated herein by reference).The publishers/producers of this site and its contents such as videos, graphics, text, and other materials published are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For any questions you may have regarding a medical condition, please always seek the advice of your physician or a qualified health provider. Do not postpone or disregard any professional medical advice over something you may have seen or read on this website. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 9-1-1 immediately. This website does not support, endorse or recommend any specific products, tests, physicians, procedures, treatment opinions or other information that may be mentioned on this site. Referencing any content or information seen or published in this website or shared by other visitors of this website is solely at your own risk. The publishers/producers of this Internet web site reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to modify, disable access to, or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, all or any part of this Internet web site or any information contained thereon without liability or notice to you.